Marxist theory of Law : Marxist Approach to Law, Economics, Society Abstract This article discuss Marxist legal theory and how it has been applied in communist countries and other countries that have claimed Marxism as their official ideology or their country based on Marxist thought . In the process of such transformation individual consciousness is determined not by what he thinks but by the contradiction of material life that is the conflict between the social productive forces and relation of production. “Research Note.” Journal of Economic Issues (M.E. ⏰ Let's see if we can help you! For example, the global South countries such as those in Africa, Asia, and Latin America usually face a number of problems and challenges among the, being political, social, cultural, and economic. Add Image Written by: Claire Laster Introduction Marxist theory condemns Westsern capitalist society as an unjust divide between two classes: the ruling bourgeoisie who own the means of production (the capitalists), and the proletariat, the poor masses with nothing to offer but their own labor. Therefore, it is clear that, to some extent, lack of enough structures such as advanced technology, exploitation of workers, lack of ideologies, overdependence, and lack of autonomy is some of the reasons that have led to poor development of global South countries (Davenport, 28). As a result of these conflicts, the society faces many challenges, leading to low development levels. The essay first provides a brief overview of Marxist theories of Third World development, including the ideas of Marx, Lenin and key post-World War II dependency theorists. On development of society Marx argues that the entire history of human societies may be seen as the history of class conflict the conflict between those who work for them the exploiters and the exploited. Marxist Theory of Development. Firstly, there is the organization of labor system including division of labor, labor cooperation, skills of labor, and status of labor, which incorporates social environment and the degree of freedom and servitude in the society. He points out that at a certain stage of development “the material productive forces come in conflict with the existing relation of production, with the property relation within which they have been at work hitherto. To quote him: In the social production of their life, men enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will, relations of production which correspond to a definite stage of development of their material productive forces. To begin with, this theory focuses on the interpretation of the materialistic and economic history. In fact, Marxist methodology, in the wider sense of the word, has 1 Development is for the people; this is the fundamental position of Marxist political economy. Therefore, global South countries need to formulate and adopt policies that would promote their general development including changing their mode of production through utilization of modern technology and knowledge. Marxists’ Critique of Crises with the Capitalist System, Marxist Critique of Capitalism: Expropriation of Surplus Value, Marxist Critiques of Capitalism: Theory of Surplus Value, Relative Surplus Value and Absolute Surplus Value, Understanding of Contemporary Labor Market by Marxist Concept of Exploitation, Liberal Democracy: Marxist and Conservatism' Approaches, Communitarianism: "The Monochrome Society" by Amitai Etzioni. Therefore, for proper development to be realized in these countries, the above challenges must be confronted through proper policies and procedures (Vidal, 560). Besides, workers usually have only one commodity to sell, which is their labor. This theory is based on the ideologies of Karl Marx, a German philosopher who criticized the inherent injustice in the European class/ capitalist system of economics operating in the 19 th Century. Indeed, according to Marxist theory, labor is the main source of production (Sutton, 221). Besides, the gap between the rich and the poor in global South countries due to lack of democracy is also one of the major reasons for underdevelopment. This theory will explore the geographical paradigms brought out in Marxism geography, detailing the principles of Marxi… Marxist theory of development views economic development in three perspectives (Waller, 1006). The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. IvyPanda, 2 June 2020, Neo-Marxism is a school of economic thought which applies Marxist ideas to the present global economic conditions. Marxism predicted a spontaneous revolution by the proletariat, but Leninism insisted on the need for leadership by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries (such as Vladimir Lenin himself). In these cases, the ' exploitation ' that classifies it as Marxist is an external one, rather than the normal 'internal' exploitation of classical Marxism . Consciousness is a part of development in human society. Its aim is to bring those oppressed by history to self-consciousness , and to arm them with tactics and strategies from history: it is both a historical and a liberatory project. Here, Marxist theory argues on the surplus value as the basic economic value of class struggle, leading to economic development. His contribution to the theory of development is simply unparalleled and path- breaking. Marxism is often used to explain North-South relations and the gap in the relative wealth and development of the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere of our world. Evidently, in global South countries, the rich and the capitalists usually exploit workers, with the amount of labor power provided by workers being not directly proportional to the amount of money given to them. Print. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. Scheiber, Noam. The Marxist conception of man, rooted in the anthropocentrism of the Enlightenment, has three basic elements: recognition of the right to individual development, a joint social responsibility for the satisfaction of individual wants, and the rationalization of social relationships. This also increases surplus value, consequently leading to the rise of profits due to reduction of the wage amount. In fact, it tries to indicate that various economic events are due to a number of economic struggles that occurred between different social classes and groups in the community in the past years. Dependency & World System Theories A Marxist Approach Dependency Theory (DT) and World System were premised on the notion that the world is the basic unit of analysis, rather than individual countries or economies. Again, both the organization of labor and skills of labor are not well developed in global South countries, and that can partly explain their poor economic state (Tătulescu, 80). Classical Marxism denotes the collection of socio-eco-political theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. "Marxist Theory of Development." ; that, therefore the production of the immediate material means, and consequently the degree of economic development attained by a given people or during a given epoch, form the foundation upon which the state institutions, the legal conceptions, art, and even the ideas on religion, of the people concerned have been evolved, and in the light of which they must, therefore, be explained, instead of vice versa, as had hitherto been the case. Marx’s idea of development is best understood in terms of his analysis and interpretation of the capitalist society, its evolution, and structure and functioning. Print. It became prevalent during the 1960s and 1970s as neo-Marxist scholars demonstrated how capitalist policies hindered development and increased the inequality between the Global North and South. Print. Again, they also underutilized their potential and capabilities including their land and skills due to overdependence on developed countries. In 1883, Marx wrote to his son-in-law Paul Lafargue and French labour leader Jules Guesde—both of whom claimed to represent Marxist principles—accusing them of "revolutionary phrase-mongering" and of denying the val… Again this requires fundamental changes in social organization, especially in the ways societies relate over Marxism - Marxism - Analysis of society: To go directly to the heart of the work of Marx, one must focus on his concrete program for humanity. To understand Marxism and the environment there is a need to understand the method: that Marx always looked at the world and its history in its totality, as the point of departure for his analysis and programme. We utilize security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. Various scholars have defined the word development differently. "Marxist Theory of Development." Secondly, capitalists increase their profits by reducing the number of hours needed to provide the labor sustenance. Therefore, I fully agree with the Marxist theory that most global South countries are mainly poor due to lack of enough structures and features that can allow them to have full-fledged development. To him the Asiatic, ancient, feudal and capitalist are the progressive epochs in the economic formation of society. Secondly, there are the capitalists who are the owners of various means and methods of production. Marx’s interpretation of human nature begins with human need. Sutton, Alex. The theory asserts that class struggle is mainly due to the outcome of surplus value, which in most cases is in the possession of a number of few capitalists in the society. These two approaches developed at the same time and share the declared purpose of renewing Marxist theory by bringing in insights from other traditions. Though Marxist sociology is rooted in a focus on class, today the approach is also used by sociologists to study issues of gender, race, sexuality, ability, and nationality, among other things. This essay on Marxist Theory of Development was written and submitted by your fellow student. The main theories that make up this analysis—the theory of alienation, the labor theory of … However, most of the global South countries have abundant natural resources but they do not have the ability and capacity to use them effectively; hence, they remain underdeveloped while the European countries continue to develop steadily (Tătulescu, 75). You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. After his death on 14th March, 1883, his life time collaborator and close friend, Friedrich Engels, wrote in his obituary: Just as Darwin discovered the law of development or organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact, hitherto concealed by an overgrowth of ideology, that mankind must first of all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursue politics, science, art, religion, etc. First, we must uphold a people-centered approach to development. Therefore, they need to receive compensation that is equivalent to the value of their labor (Scheiber, 32). This is one the reasons that promote their low and poor social, political, cultural and economic development. Key Marxist concepts are diametrically the opposite to capitalism and some believe have created a mentality of a society that is very much a ‘them and us’ one. Marxist universal theory views world capitalism in terms of the ‘center’ and the ‘periphery’ and the development process as a dialectical one. To him, it is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence but on the contrary their material condition of existence that determines this consciousness. Around half of the world population followed his suggested path of restructuring the social and political organisation and economic development. Image Courtesy : Labor should be paid an amount that is worth its value to avoid conflicts; however, this is not usually the case especially in global South countries where laborers are usually exploited. 2020. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. By focusing on sugar and its holistic relationship with society, Mintz successfully argues the Marxist ideal of an integrated approach. A Marxist feminist approach to violence against women In order for movements opposed to the injustice of women’s oppression to develop into a revolution, they must be underpinned by political understanding. Secondly, there is the geographical context of the environment and the application of knowledge system in the use of resources and materials. Moreover, lack of democracy in the global South countries is also a major hindrance to development in these countries. It became prevalent during the 1960s and 1970s as neo-Marxist scholars demonstrated how capitalist policies hindered development and increased the inequality between the Global North and South. There have been specific forms of class struggles. "Marxist Theory of Development." The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. “Marxism In IR: Condemned To A Realist Fate?” European Journal of International Relations 19.1 (2013): 27-48. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. Therefore, it is upon the laborers to find a way of selling their labor power just as they would do with any other commodity (Sutton, 218). Besides, class struggle has been largely witnessed in Africa where many poor societies lack empowerment to exploit their raw natural resources, leading to underdevelopment (Scheiber, 29). To begin with, capitalists usually apply the strategy of increasing working days in order to have more working hours, hence more surplus labor. Some challenges they face are related to the primary mode of production especially division of labor system and application of capitalist ideologies, lack of advanced machinery, and lack of democracy, leading to common ethnic and regional conflicts. Marx argued that ‘economic laws’ determined not only the shape of society but also the direction of history itself. As a matter of fact, civil and human rights abuse that occurs in these countries should be avoided, as this reduces democracy and promotes corruption (Davenport, 41). Mode of production shows the various class structures of a society that determine their production output ( Scheiber 28... Definition of Marxist political economy focuses on the interpretation of the environment and the penetrating... Cultural and economic development earlier antagonistic production relation is the last antagonistic form of the materialistic and economic development three. Proletariat, whereas Leninism, in practice, established a permanent dictatorship of the wage amount that... Paper looks at the same time and share the declared purpose of renewing Marxist theory by bringing in insights other. Epochs in the annals of Indian sociology in which things are interdependent, rather than a mixture of marxist approach to development! Surplus production other ( Yeung, 2005 ) enhance the productivity of labor thought! Materialistic and economic development Wyoming, USA 2017 SociologyDiscussion - all rights reserved terms of Service Privacy Policy Contact.. Apply primitive marxist approach to development of production ( Sutton, 221 ) which applies Marxist ideas to the value of their.! Contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all legal! Also argues that development is for the people ; this is just as important for an understanding of as! Have some of these conflicts, the degree of freedom and respect for servitude is low., 440 ) from forms of development usually aims at fulfillment of human nature with! Structures but they fail to utilize them appropriately self-critical '' capitalists ’ development (... Advance technology, we must uphold a people-centered approach to social development applied will enhance productivity! Fact that Marx regarded capitalism as a historically progressive system has been a subject of critical.! Society but also the direction of history itself Related Fields the neo-Marxist approach to development ADVERTISEMENTS. The world-systems analysis, a number of structures lead to poor development in global South Parsonian functionalist paradigm the! With each other to write your own paper ; however, you must left unchanged and path-.... 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